Elder Ray Bull and Bear Power

Elder Ray Index measures the amount of buying and selling pressure in the market. This indicator consists of two separate indicators known as "bull power" and "bear power". These figures allow a trader to determine the position of the price relative to a specified Exponential Moving Average.

Bull Power = Daily High - x period EMA

Bear Power = Daily Low - x period EMA


The Elder-Ray Understanding the Elder-ray is inextricably linked to an understanding of oscillators, which are figures used to find turning points in the markets. Oscillators are seen to be indicative of the emotional extremes of both bulls and bears. These extremes are fleeting and unsustainable levels of optimism or pessimism that the vast majority of market participants are exhibiting. Knowing that these extreme conditions never last long, professional traders often fare better than average investors in betting against such extremes. When the market rises and the bulls are greediest, the pros sell short. When the market is at its lowest and fear runs rampant, the pros jump in to buy.

Elder-ray labels its oscillator components as "bull power" or "bear power". These are combined with an exponential moving average, which is a trend-following indicator essential to the calculation. Bull power is a simple calculation, derived by subtracting an exponential moving average (perhaps a 13-day EMA) of closing prices from a high price of any given security. Bear power subtracts the EMA from the corresponding low price of that trading day. Both bull power and bear power are plotted as histograms under the bar chart of your chosen security.

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