Williams Accumulation/Distribution

Williams AD is a running sum of positive accumulation values (buying pressure) and negative distribution values (selling pressure), as determined by price's location within a given day's true range.

To calculate the Williams' Accumulation/Distribution indicator, determine:

True Range High (TRH) = Yesterday's close or today's high whichever is greater
True Range Low (TRL) = Yesterday's close or today's low whichever is less

The day's accumulation/distribution is then calculated by comparing today's closing price to yesterday's closing price.

If today's close is greater than yesterday's close: Today's A/D = today's close - TRL

If today's close is less than yesterday's close: Today's A/D = today's close - TRH

If today's close is the same as yesterday's close then the A/D is zero.

The Williams' Accumulation/Distribution indicator is a cumulative total of the daily values:

Williams A/D = Today's A/D + Yesterday's Williams A/D

Williams states it's worth selling if the price makes a new high and the indicator fails to follow suit. As well, it's better to purchase if prices fall to a new bottom yet the A/D indicator fails to reach a new low.